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The recession velocity is taken as the mid-point of this line. When the atmospheric water vapour level is low, we preferentially observe the redder galaxies, which have a very low detection rate Fig. We observe the bluer galaxies generally CO-luminous under poorer weather conditions.

This single tuning procedure results in enormous time savings of 15 min per source, and in an improved relative calibration accuracy. These samples are 35509 for studying star formation laws within galaxies e.

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Because of a strong correlation between infrared luminosity and CO luminosity e. The result is shown in Fig. With a single tuning of the receiver at a frequency of As a comparison, we also show as contours in Fig. Comparison between atomic and molecular hydrogen gas masses. Overall, the molecular gas contents are more modest, averaging at for the CO detections, and at 0. The mean molecular gas fraction of the CO detections is 0.

The 35009 molecular gas mass fraction averaged over galaxies with detections and non-detections of the CO line is a roughly constant function of stellar mass, but a decreasing function of stellar mass surface density and concentration index.

Furthermore, even though Catinella et al. SDSS three-colour image 1. The grey shaded region shows the overall detection rate of The arrows show limits in the cases of non-detection of either the H i or the CO line. The efficiency of the observations is also maximized by our single tuning approach see Section 4. The mean gas mass fraction among the detected galaxies does not vary strongly with any global galaxy property except colour.


A similar result was found by Catinella et al. 35099 reason why so few scaling laws involving cold gas and global galaxy properties, such as masses, sizes and bulge-to-disc ratios, exist in the literature, is the difficulty in acquiring suitable data. The best-fitting linear relations are also plotted and summarized in Table 3. On the spectra, we overplot the optical redshift of the galaxies red linesand the central position and widths of the line detected in the central pointings blue lines.

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The conditions listed in Kram 1which are irxm to obtain reliable scaling laws, are routinely met by optically selected samples of galaxies at a low redshift. We adopted the three-quarter beam offset as a compromise between the requirements for independent flux idam and a modest fraction of our total observing time going into off-centre 5309.

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. We define the molecular fraction as the ratio between the molecular hydrogen gas mass and the atomic gas mass of the system: The emission lines are identified by examining the spectra at the expected positions based on the redshift on each galaxy, and the width of CO the line in the central pointing is used as additional information.

These offsets are taken 16 arcsec or three quarters of the main beam away from the centres. For any subsample of N galaxies with CO non-detection, we calculate a mean stacked spectrum: Ages of asteroid families with the YORP-eye method.

Observations are carried out using the L -band Wide receiver and the interim correlator, providing coverage of the full frequency interval of the GASS targets at a velocity resolution of 1.

However, a few well-established scaling laws exist describing how the cold gas is correlated with the other global physical properties of galaxies.


Highlights from these studies include the observations that molecular gas distributions decline monotonically with galaxy-centric radius unlike the atomic gas distributions, that IR-luminous galaxies are also CO-bright, with molecular gas concentrated within the inner kpc of these mostly interacting systems, and that the total gas mass fraction as well as the molecular-to-atomic 35509 are functions of Hubble type.


Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of nearby galaxies is the intricately interwoven system of correlations between their global properties. The stellar mass and redshift ranges also ensure that we recover the total CO line flux of the galaxies with a single pointing of the IRAM m telescope, and that a single CO luminosity to conversion factor is likely adequate.

When multiple measurements are found for the same galaxy, the newest is assumed to supersede previous values. View large Download slide.

Galaxies in our redshift range 0. The central velocity and total width of the detected CO lines are then measured using a custom-made idl interactive script. Other contributions to the error budget on iam a flux calibration error 10 per cent at a wavelength of 3 mm, under average atmospheric conditions and the uncertainty on the aperture correction which we estimate to be 15 per cent based on Fig.

The process includes registering the images and smoothing them to a common point spread function PSF. We also fold into this catalogue 15 galaxies observed in June, as a part of a pilot programme designed to test the feasibility of the survey.